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Wednesday, February 10

  1. 5:10 pm

Thursday, May 3

  1. page home edited ... Kapok Tree Oil Bean Tree Philodendron granpipes Polaris PalmQueen AechmeaStrangler FigTrump…
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    Kapok Tree
    Oil Bean Tree
    Philodendron granpipes Polaris PalmQueen AechmeaStrangler FigTrumpet
    Polaris Palm
    Queen Aechmea
    Strangler Fig
    Trumpet
    Tree
    Veiled Lady Fungi
    The Walking Palm
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    Coffee Plantations
    {526740_3708664561451_1420684924_33509392_2042839338_n.jpg}
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    Costa Rica. During our time in La Selva we visited a coffee plantation. {529740_3708663201417_1420684924_33509386_824494382_n.jpg} Coffee
    {523785_3708663481424_1420684924_33509387_1779708380_n.jpg}
    the amount of fruit availability. This is an intuitive find, but it proves that if more native plant species are incorporated into coffee plantations it can help increase the bird presence and perhaps population. Another study demonstrated the value of coffee plantations to migratory birds. This study showed that coffee plantations had the second highest presence of migratory birds, behind acacia groves. The importance increases greatly in the dry season when the numbers of migratory birds present double. This could be important to species during the mating process.
    (view changes)
    11:27 am

Tuesday, May 1

  1. page home edited ... Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE. 2009. The potenti…
    ...
    Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE. 2009. The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests.
    Conservation Biology 23(6):1406-1417.
    Role of Diverse Bird Populations in Conservation
    In La Selva Biological station there are over 100 species of birds living in the secondary and primary forests. Each bird species have specific environments to be found in and specific times of the day that they come out to forage. For example, understory birds like the Green Honeycreeper, Scarlet Tanager, Golden-Headed Tanager, and the Golden-Winged Warbler are seen frequently feeding off of the Miconia plants in secondary growth parts. There were also many upper-story birds that were seen on the edge of old growth and secondary growth forest, like the chestnut-mandible and keel-billed toucan and sometimes macaws can be spotted. In addition to frugivorous species we also saw many fish eating species along the riverbanks at La Selva. These included the Great Egret, Little Blue Heron and the Green Ibis. Species of birds are found on all levels of the forest from the floor to above the canopy all at different times of the day. The diet of these birds consists of a large variety of fruits, fish, insects, and for some, small mammals. Their role in secondary forests is vital for spreading plant species in developing forests and maintaining a stable population of their prey.
    Conserving the old-growth habitats for these species is very important for seed dispersal and insect control for developing secondary forests. In Tropical Ecology by Kricher the presence and interaction of bird species has been investigated in Agroforests, which are plantations of usually coffee or cacao with canopy tree species. Ecological studies have been done in agrofrests because they are easy to manipulate to get a better understanding of interactions.
    To understand the relationship between epiphytes and bird species, in one study they removed all the epiphytes in an agroforest to see how and what species of birds it will affect. They found that the Common Bush Tanager (Chlorospingus ophyhalmicus) population was negatively affected whereas the golden-crowned warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus) was not. It was concluded that epiphytes are essential nesting sites for many species of birds.
    Another couple studies also done in agroforests investigated the bird and insect interactions. One wanted to understand how birds affect arthropod densities in the forest. They discovered that access by migrant birds help reduce these insect densities, thus reducing leaf damage. With a large diversity of birds that feed on arthropods they will help promote the health and survival of multiple tree species. A forest with more bird species will be able to consume a larger variety of arthropods that damage different plant species. The other insect study involved the consumption of Lepidoptera larvae consumption on coffee plants. This study was conducted on two agroforests, one that had many species of shading trees and another that only had one species. The found that the agroforest with higher tree diversity had more species of birds and a higher consumption rate of the larvae. They concluded that bird diversity might protect potential outbreaks of insects and maintain healthy stability of the forest.
    With the help of agroforest studies we are able to understand the stability that birds bring to the forest and what plant growth they require for the survival. Encouraging more species of birds to live in the forest will help control a larger variety of problems resulting from destruction by insects, and help disperse seeds from more plant species.
    Kricher, John. Tropical Ecology. First Edition. Princeton University Press 2011.

    Flora: The following flora were observed by individuals in Costa Rica.
    Breadfruit Tree
    ...
    Yellowtail Damselfish
    In La Selva specifically has conservation initiatives for the following species: Great Green Macaw, peccaries, bats, and sloths.
    Role of Diverse Bird Populations in Conservation
    In La Selva Biological station there are over 100 species of birds living in the secondary and primary forests. Each bird species have specific environments to be found in and specific times of the day that they come out to forage. For example, understory birds like the Green Honeycreeper, Scarlet Tanager, Golden-Headed Tanager, and the Golden-Winged Warbler are seen frequently feeding off of the Miconia plants in secondary growth parts. There were also many upper-story birds that were seen on the edge of old growth and secondary growth forest, like the chestnut-mandible and keel-billed toucan and sometimes macaws can be spotted. In addition to frugivorous species we also saw many fish eating species along the riverbanks at La Selva. These included the Great Egret, Little Blue Heron and the Green Ibis. Species of birds are found on all levels of the forest from the floor to above the canopy all at different times of the day. The diet of these birds consists of a large variety of fruits, fish, insects, and for some, small mammals. Their role in secondary forests is vital for spreading plant species in developing forests and maintaining a stable population of their prey.
    Conserving the old-growth habitats for these species is very important for seed dispersal and insect control for developing secondary forests. In Tropical Ecology by Kricher the presence and interaction of bird species has been investigated in Agroforests, which are plantations of usually coffee or cacao with canopy tree species. Ecological studies have been done in agrofrests because they are easy to manipulate to get a better understanding of interactions.
    To understand the relationship between epiphytes and bird species, in one study they removed all the epiphytes in an agroforest to see how and what species of birds it will affect. They found that the Common Bush Tanager (Chlorospingus ophyhalmicus) population was negatively affected whereas the golden-crowned warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus) was not. It was concluded that epiphytes are essential nesting sites for many species of birds.
    Another couple studies also done in agroforests investigated the bird and insect interactions. One wanted to understand how birds affect arthropod densities in the forest. They discovered that access by migrant birds help reduce these insect densities, thus reducing leaf damage. With a large diversity of birds that feed on arthropods they will help promote the health and survival of multiple tree species. A forest with more bird species will be able to consume a larger variety of arthropods that damage different plant species. The other insect study involved the consumption of Lepidoptera larvae consumption on coffee plants. This study was conducted on two agroforests, one that had many species of shading trees and another that only had one species. The found that the agroforest with higher tree diversity had more species of birds and a higher consumption rate of the larvae. They concluded that bird diversity might protect potential outbreaks of insects and maintain healthy stability of the forest.
    With the help of agroforest studies we are able to understand the stability that birds bring to the forest and what plant growth they require for the survival. Encouraging more species of birds to live in the forest will help control a larger variety of problems resulting from destruction by insects, and help disperse seeds from more plant species.
    Kricher, John. Tropical Ecology. First Edition. Princeton University Press 2011.

    Great Green Macaw
    Justin Morimoto, a bird expert, led bird walks where we were able to observe the Great Green Macaw at the La Selva station. The La Selva reserve has made a very conscious effort to provide a safe habitat for the Great Green Macaw. They have used this endangered species as a focus for their {Green_Mccaw.jpg} Great Green Macaw (by Justin Morimoto)campaign to conserve a unique lowland Atlantic forest assemblage in Costa Rica (Chassot et al, 2002). La Selva reserve recognizes that these species require the high density of the Almendro (Dipteryx panamensis) and has been able to maintain these trees for these birds. These trees provide a nesting site as well as a primary food resource for the great green macaw. The reserve is well protected and therefore these birds have found refuge between the San Jaun River and the La Selva Biological Station (Chassot et al, 2002). There is only 10% remaining of the natural nesting habitat in Costa Rica for the Great Green Macaw. While these species face habitat loss, they also face the threat of poaching and capture for commerce (Guedes, 2004). For centuries they have been admired and desired because of their beautiful and unique feather coloration and now the unrestricted capture of these birds has become so great that populations are unable to recover fast enough. Once sold, many pet owners don’t understand the proper dietary restrictions of the birds. Their long life span causes them to outlive humans, leaving many abandoned or pre-maturely euthanized. La Selva is making a strong effort to protect and help re-populate the green macaw populations.
    (view changes)
    10:20 pm

Monday, April 30

  1. page home edited ... {Map_of_costa_rica_2.jpg} Map of Costa Rica (created by Gabby Brum) La Selva Biological Stati…
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    {Map_of_costa_rica_2.jpg} Map of Costa Rica (created by Gabby Brum)
    La Selva Biological Station
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    handle specimens. Because we were not licensed, we were only allowed to do observational research at La Selva. Chazdon et
    {La_Selva.jpg}
    Stephan Schwartzman, Adriana Moreira, Rethinking Tropical Forest Conservation: Perils in Parks, Conservation Biology, Vol. 14 No. 5 pp 1351-1357, October 2000
    ...
    {littleblackmyotis.jpg} Little black myotis, Myotis nigricans
    Though it is hard to change the image of the bat, the ACMCR is optimistic that through education it will be possible. The target audience of their program is young children, because they believe it will be easier to form a realistic idea about bats in the minds of individuals who have maybe never or at least for a shorter time thought badly of bats. They believe that the youth will then teach their parents what they have learned, and in this way a whole society will be altered.
    ...
    bat, Rhogeessa tumida similartumidasimilar to humans,
    Bats have a unique way of navigating and “seeing” the world: echolocation. Although bats are colorblind and have poor vision, they can see. Bats instead rely on echolocation, an ability quite like sonar. They emit high frequency calls and then listen to the echoes in order to locate objects around them (such as their prey). Some bats use their mouths to transmit the sounds, while others use a unique body part called the nose leaf. Most bats have large ears to help them receive the sounds that are bouncing back. Bats can form 100 images per minute using this echolocation.
    {centralamericanwing2.jpg} Central American yellow bat, Rhogeessa tumida
    (view changes)
    6:08 pm
  2. page home edited ... Three-toed Sloth Yellowtail Damselfish ... La Selva we specifically observed has cons…
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    Three-toed Sloth
    Yellowtail Damselfish
    ...
    La Selva we specifically observedhas conservation initiatives
    Great Green Macaw
    Justin Morimoto, a bird expert, led bird walks where we were able to observe the Great Green Macaw at the La Selva station. The La Selva reserve has made a very conscious effort to provide a safe habitat for the Great Green Macaw. They have used this endangered species as a focus for their {Green_Mccaw.jpg} Great Green Macaw (by Justin Morimoto)campaign to conserve a unique lowland Atlantic forest assemblage in Costa Rica (Chassot et al, 2002). La Selva reserve recognizes that these species require the high density of the Almendro (Dipteryx panamensis) and has been able to maintain these trees for these birds. These trees provide a nesting site as well as a primary food resource for the great green macaw. The reserve is well protected and therefore these birds have found refuge between the San Jaun River and the La Selva Biological Station (Chassot et al, 2002). There is only 10% remaining of the natural nesting habitat in Costa Rica for the Great Green Macaw. While these species face habitat loss, they also face the threat of poaching and capture for commerce (Guedes, 2004). For centuries they have been admired and desired because of their beautiful and unique feather coloration and now the unrestricted capture of these birds has become so great that populations are unable to recover fast enough. Once sold, many pet owners don’t understand the proper dietary restrictions of the birds. Their long life span causes them to outlive humans, leaving many abandoned or pre-maturely euthanized. La Selva is making a strong effort to protect and help re-populate the green macaw populations.
    ...
    These fascinating animals have a great deal of benefits on human beings and their surrounding environment. One is that bats eat insects that humans consider pests. A 10 gram bat can eat 1000 mosquitoes per hour. As long as we conserve bats, people can save money on pesticides and not get bitten as often. Bats also aid in seed dispersal for some species of plants. For example, A 20 gram short-tailed bat eats Cecropia seeds and disperses 24,000 seedlings per night. Bats are well known for helping regenerate forest due to their seed dispersal. Additionally bats are important pollinators, including for plants that we use in agriculture like the agave plant. The agave plant is used to make tequila, which is exported and enjoyed globally. By showing people that bats play a crucial role in the environment and our lives, the ACMCR group can help show why conservation should be a priority that is equally as important as the economy and the problem of poverty.
    Sloths
    ...
    sloth sanctuary we visited exemplifies some
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    sloth center we saw a fewsome of the sloths that
    {524453_3708676041738_1420684924_33509430_1496845688_n.jpg} {548458_3204836682222_1305270092_32964455_357200874_n.jpg}
    Daily, Gretchen C., Gerardo Ceballos, Jesús Pacheco, Gerardo Suzán, and Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa. "Countryside Biogeography of Neotropical Mammals:
    ...
    Greenberg, Russell, Peter Bichier, and John Sterling. "Bird Populations in Rustic and Planted Shade Coffee Plantations of Eastern Chiapas, Mexico." Biotropica 29.4 (1997): 501-14. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.
    Cahuita
    After spending some time at La Selva Biological Station, we headed Southeast to a beautiful place called Cahuita. ItCahuita is located
    ...
    north of Panama. Here, we were able to witness the aquatic lifePanama and in the tropics. Because we were so close to the ocean, new speciessoutheast region of birds, plants, and aquatic organisms were found that further indicated the tropical biodiversity.
    Cahuita was
    Costa Rica. It is a tourist area rather than a biological reservation,city in the, and consequently
    ...
    and culture wasis not completely different. Natives thrived off of tourism, while everyone else enjoyed their vacation. While snorkeling at a nearby beach, we noticed that locals usedoriented towards preserving the beach as a place of entertainment, rather than a place to learn about the coastal coral reef. The people were friendly, but conservation did not seem like a high priority.species. Tourism can
    {523295_3711140743354_1420684924_33510700_1244155447_n.jpg} Camille observing marine life (photographed by Chris Judge)
    Coral Reefs
    ...
    Mangrove Forests
    {555631_3205082928378_1305270092_32964623_552067243_n.jpg}
    In Cahuita we took a boat ride through a lagoon where we observed and learned about the benefits conserving the mangrove forest has to the preservation of biodiversity. ExpertsExperts report that,
    Although mangrove forests are continuing to decrease in area, they are receiving less publicity than tropical rainforests and coral reefs. The destruction of mangrove forests is occurring globally, mostly due to anthropogenic causes. Humans are removing, destroying, and damaging the forests for profitable and industrial purposes. For example, mangrove forests are being carved out and replaced with dikes and ponds that are used to support the cultivation of shrimp. Mangrove forests are also being removed in order to create “salt flats” for salt collection and production. These actions are eliminating the energy that mangrove forests provide to other ecosystems. In doing so, humans are decreasing biodiversity within the mangrove habitats and the offshore ecosystems that the mangrove forests support. Along with providing habitats to multiple organisms, mangroves also possess many other ecological purposes. For example, mangrove forests provide stability to the land they are rooted in, and help prevent erosion. The elimination of mangroves decreases land stability.
    {545627_3711140303343_434002710_n.jpg}
    ...
    Valiela, Ivan. "Mangrove Forests: One of the World's Threatened Major Tropical Environments." Bioscience 51.10 (2001): 807-15. Print.
    San Jose
    The final day we traveled to San Jose,San Jose is a highly populated city.city in Costa Rica. As we traveledone travels over the
    ...
    San Jose, we noticed lessthe plant and animal biodiversity. We attributed it to thebiodiversity decreases. The pollution and
    ...
    and agricultural production.production decreases biodiversity. In the
    {Costa_Rica_2012_006.JPG} Aerial view of the agricultural regions.
    {Costa_Rica_2012_003.JPG} Mountainous region in Costa Rica.
    (view changes)
    12:05 pm
  3. page home edited ... BiologySpring 2012 {523897_3708654961211_1420684924_33509366_1208025753_n.jpg} {523897_37…
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    BiologySpring 2012 {523897_3708654961211_1420684924_33509366_1208025753_n.jpg}
    {523897_3708654961211_1420684924_33509366_1208025753_n.jpg}

    Conserving the Tropics
    The future of our planet depends on our ability to conserve the biodiversity. Costa Rican rainforests face threats of massive deforestation, forest degrading and fragmentation due to logging and other human development, which causes a notable rift in the bio-diversity. Disturbances can upset the balance and flow of the forest’s sensitive ecological system. Environments need to be monitored, patterns need to be graphed and analyzed, and behaviors and interactions need to be understood. DeClerck et al. (2010) conveys that more extensive, longer-term, and smarter studies need to be done in the field of conservation. But they also allude to another obstacle to conservation: public opinion. DeClerck et al. suggests that it is difficult to make the people care about conservation of biodiversity when they are more concerned about human issues: poverty, tourism, etc.
    (view changes)
    10:10 am
  4. page home edited ... Kapok Tree Oil Bean Tree Philodendron granpipesPolaris granpipes Polaris PalmQueen Aechme…
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    Kapok Tree
    Oil Bean Tree
    Philodendron granpipesPolarisgranpipes Polaris PalmQueen AechmeaStrangler
    Veiled Lady Fungi
    The Walking Palm
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    Coffee Plantations
    {526740_3708664561451_1420684924_33509392_2042839338_n.jpg}
    ...
    increased with
    {523785_3708663481424_1420684924_33509387_1779708380_n.jpg}
    the amount of fruit availability. This is an intuitive find, but it proves that if more native plant species are incorporated into coffee plantations it can help increase the bird presence and perhaps population. Another study demonstrated the value of coffee plantations to migratory birds. This study showed that coffee plantations had the second highest presence of migratory birds, behind acacia groves. The importance increases greatly in the dry season when the numbers of migratory birds present double. This could be important to species during the mating process.
    (view changes)
    10:09 am
  5. page home edited ... Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE. 2009. The potenti…
    ...
    Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE. 2009. The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests.
    Conservation Biology 23(6):1406-1417.
    Role of Diverse Bird Populations in Conservation
    In La Selva Biological station there are over 100 species of birds living in the secondary and primary forests. Each bird species have specific environments to be found in and specific times of the day that they come out to forage. For example, understory birds like the Green Honeycreeper, Scarlet Tanager, Golden-Headed Tanager, and the Golden-Winged Warbler are seen frequently feeding off of the Miconia plants in secondary growth parts. There were also many upper-story birds that were seen on the edge of old growth and secondary growth forest, like the chestnut-mandible and keel-billed toucan and sometimes macaws can be spotted. In addition to frugivorous species we also saw many fish eating species along the riverbanks at La Selva. These included the Great Egret, Little Blue Heron and the Green Ibis. Species of birds are found on all levels of the forest from the floor to above the canopy all at different times of the day. The diet of these birds consists of a large variety of fruits, fish, insects, and for some, small mammals. Their role in secondary forests is vital for spreading plant species in developing forests and maintaining a stable population of their prey.
    Conserving the old-growth habitats for these species is very important for seed dispersal and insect control for developing secondary forests. In Tropical Ecology by Kricher the presence and interaction of bird species has been investigated in Agroforests, which are plantations of usually coffee or cacao with canopy tree species. Ecological studies have been done in agrofrests because they are easy to manipulate to get a better understanding of interactions.
    To understand the relationship between epiphytes and bird species, in one study they removed all the epiphytes in an agroforest to see how and what species of birds it will affect. They found that the Common Bush Tanager (Chlorospingus ophyhalmicus) population was negatively affected whereas the golden-crowned warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus) was not. It was concluded that epiphytes are essential nesting sites for many species of birds.
    Another couple studies also done in agroforests investigated the bird and insect interactions. One wanted to understand how birds affect arthropod densities in the forest. They discovered that access by migrant birds help reduce these insect densities, thus reducing leaf damage. With a large diversity of birds that feed on arthropods they will help promote the health and survival of multiple tree species. A forest with more bird species will be able to consume a larger variety of arthropods that damage different plant species. The other insect study involved the consumption of Lepidoptera larvae consumption on coffee plants. This study was conducted on two agroforests, one that had many species of shading trees and another that only had one species. The found that the agroforest with higher tree diversity had more species of birds and a higher consumption rate of the larvae. They concluded that bird diversity might protect potential outbreaks of insects and maintain healthy stability of the forest.
    With the help of agroforest studies we are able to understand the stability that birds bring to the forest and what plant growth they require for the survival. Encouraging more species of birds to live in the forest will help control a larger variety of problems resulting from destruction by insects, and help disperse seeds from more plant species.
    Kricher, John. Tropical Ecology. First Edition. Princeton University Press 2011.

    Flora: The following flora were observed by individuals in Costa Rica.
    Breadfruit Tree
    (view changes)
    10:05 am
  6. page home edited ... Stephan Schwartzman, Adriana Moreira, Rethinking Tropical Forest Conservation: Perils in Parks…
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    Stephan Schwartzman, Adriana Moreira, Rethinking Tropical Forest Conservation: Perils in Parks, Conservation Biology, Vol. 14 No. 5 pp 1351-1357, October 2000
    Robin Chazdon, Carlos Peres, The Potential for Species Conservatiosn in Tropical Secondary Forests, Conservation Biology Vol. 23 No. 6 pp 1406-1417, 2009
    Over the duration of five days spent at the La Selva Biological Station, we had the opportunity to explore plant and animal species in their natural habitat, all of which contribute to the biodiversity of the tropical rain forest. During our time there, tour guides took us on afternoon and night nature walks through the tropical forest, pointing out plants and animals and introducing us to the natural history of La Selva’s rain forests. The tour guides at La Selva demonstrated impressive knowledge of tropical rain forest species and their environment, and they were careful not to disturb the natural community. The 5:00 A.M. bird watches familiarized us with the diverse group of birds that inhabit the rain forest. The tours increased both our understanding of the rain forest and our concern for its conservation. We spent much of our afternoons at La Selva working on individual and group field projects. Each person studied the morphology and behavior of a plant and an animal species. In small groups, we executed self-designed experiments based on observations of species. In addition, the class compiled a list of all the species seen on the trip. Through firsthand experience, we gained new knowledge of rain forest species and their environment, and we developed a much greater appreciation for the value of this ecosystem. As a result of our trip, we are better equipped to contribute to the conservation of the tropical rain forest.
    A recent assessment of spatial and temporal factors influencing the diversity of animal communities in tropical secondary forests determined that the potential for the conservation of old-growth species in secondary forests is highest in regions where the ratio of secondary to old-growth forest area is relatively low, older secondary forests have persisted, there is small human disturbance, seed-dispersing agents are prevalent, and old-growth forests are close to abandoned areas. Moreover, this assessment suggested that both old-growth and secondary forests are important to the maintenance of forest species in human-modified landscapes. These findings attest to La Selva’s potential for species conservation, since the majority of La Selva’s area is old-growth forest, the reserve minimizes human disturbances, and the reserve has both old-growth and secondary forests growing in close proximity to each other.
    Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE. 2009. The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests.
    (view changes)
    9:47 am
  7. page Cocoa plant edited ... As I mentioned previously, T. cacao is pollinated primarily by flies and midges. There are sev…
    ...
    As I mentioned previously, T. cacao is pollinated primarily by flies and midges. There are several hundred kinds of fungi which parasitize this tree, since it grows best in shady and humid environments. Certain fungi cause diseases which can devastate crop yields on plantations of these crops. Some of these include Botryodiplodia theobromae (pod rot), Cephaleuros viruscens (Algal spot), and Marasmius perniciosis (South American witches broom). Humans and T. cacao have a very fond symbiotic relationship; T. cacao is cultivated ubiquitously in the tropics for the production of cocoa, cocoa butter, and chocolate. The genus name, “Theobroma,” actually means “Food of the Gods.” In both the Aztec and Mayan mythologies, T. cacao was given to mankind as a gift from the gods. In fact, there are probably few plants in the world that are as beloved and vital to man as the cocoa plant (And even among the beloved plants of the world, T. cacao is the most innocuous.)
    Personal Experience:
    Most of the T.T. cacao specimens that I observed wereis easy to
    ...
    trunks. They all fit in fairly well with the typical wild habitat for the species; they were all
    ...
    the shade, and there waswith only one that grewobserved specimen found in a more exposed place.location. This one
    ...
    time of cycle it was on. There were no flowers on any of the trees I observed so I did not get a chance to investigate pollination behavior.cycle.
    References:
    http://www.xocoatl.org/tree.htm
    (view changes)
    9:18 am

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